What is Hydrology?
Hydrology is the branch of science which deals with the study of water (surface and ground) on Earth, water cycle, properties of water, and its relation with the environment. A person who studies hydrology is known as a hydrologist.
Leonardo da Vinci is considered one of the founding fathers of hydrology, while Robert Elmer Horton is known as the father of modern hydrology.
What is the Significance of Hydrology?
Hydrology is an extremely important field as it can be used to tackle water pollution and protect the earth's water resources. It also plays an important role in civil engineering, where the data provided by hydrologists is used for the construction of dams, hydroelectric power plants, and water reservoirs.
Hydrology is applied to:
1. Assess the quality and quantity of water in a particular region
2. Calculate rainfall and precipitation
3. Predict natural disasters like floods and droughts
4. Properly manage the water resources
5. Calculate the water balance of a region
What is Hydrogeology?
Hydrogeology is a branch of hydrology which deals with the study of groundwater. The groundwater includes water inside the earth's crust and rocks. The data collected is used for the construction of wells.
What are Baseflow and Runoff in Hydrology?
Baseflow is the streamflow that exists in the stream without the contribution of direct runoff from the rainfall and comprises entirely of groundwater. On the other hand, runoff is the portion of water that seeps into the streams due to excess rainfall or irrigation. Baseflow occurs when the soil can no longer retain the excess water.