What are the Causes of Land Pollution?
Numerous causes contribute to land pollution, among which deposition of solid and liquid waste on the land surface is the main cause of pollution. These waste materials are generally classified into three types:
- Municipal solid waste.
- Construction and demolition waste.
- Hazardous waste.
Leachate, a highly contaminated liquid, is generated from the decomposition of these waste materials, which often contaminates the groundwater.
Some other causes are deforestation, agricultural activities, mining activities, industrialization, urbanization, soil erosion, inadequate sewage treatment, etc.
What are the Effects of Land Pollution?
Here are some of the adverse effects of land pollution:
- Groundwater poisoning due to the mixing of leachate with groundwater.
- Land pollution directly or indirectly affects the climate pattern.
- Loss of soil fertility.
- Extinction and endangerment of wildlife species.
- Land pollution may lead to fatal problems like skin cancer and respiratory diseases.
- The burning of dry waste may lead to an increase in air pollution.
- Land pollution may lead to acid rain, which kills trees and other plants.
- Due to landfills and dumpsites, the aesthetic appearance of the city deteriorates, which damages tourism.
- Habitat shifting occurs due to land pollution, which will force animals to move from their natural habitat.
How to Prevent Land Pollution?
- Reduce the usage of fertilizers and pesticides in agricultural activities.
- Reduce the usage of non-biodegradable materials.
- Reforestation and afforestation.
- Recycling garbage and properly disposing it.
- Promoting and encouraging organic farming.
- Reuse of materials such as plastic, cloth, glass, and bags.