Urbanization is a pervasive and recent phenomenon in which populations move from rural to urban areas, enabling cities and towns to grow. Urbanization can also be defined as a progressive increase in people living in towns and cities.

Urban areas are equipped with better infrastructure, public facilities, and employment opportunities compared to rural areas. Due to this difference, people tend to move from rural to urban areas.

What are the Causes of Urbanization?

Some of the main causes of urbanization are:


The industrial revolution has increased employment opportunities and gives people the chance to work in modern sectors.


Commerce, trade, and distribution of goods and services play a major role in the development of towns and cities, leading to urbanization.

Social Benefits and Services

Urban areas offer better educational facilities, better living standards, better sanitation and housing, better health care, better recreation facilities, and better social life, attracting people to migrate from rural to urban areas.

Employment Opportunities

Urban areas have countless employment opportunities in all developmental sectors such as public health, education, transport, sports and recreation, industries, and business enterprises leading to the frequent migration into urban areas to access well-paying jobs.

Some other causes are modernization, rural-urban transformation, and changes in the mode of living.

What are the Advantages of Urbanization?

Urbanization also creates positive effects if it happens within the appropriate limits. The following are some of the main advantages of urbanization:

  1. Creation of employment opportunities.
  2. Technological and infrastructural advancements.
  3. Improved transportation and communication.
  4. Quality educational and medical facilities.
  5. Higher wages in cities on average.
  6. Increase in the standard of living.

What are the Disadvantages of Urbanization?

Excessive urbanization or indiscriminate growth of cities may result in adverse effects. The following are some of the disadvantages of urbanization:

  1. Increase in urban crime rates.
  2. An increase in pollution.
  3. Traffic congestion.
  4. Higher level of stress.
  5. Increase in development of slums.
  6. Chances of spreading of diseases.
  7. Higher level of stress.
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