Water Pollution

Water pollution is defined as contamination of water bodies such as rivers, oceans, lakes, and groundwater with domestic, industrial effluents, and agricultural wastes beyond the permissible limits.

This results in a change in water quality, which has harmful effects on the environment, humans, animals, and plants.

What are the Causes of Water Pollution?

The most significant sources of water pollution are:

  1. Sewage water
  2. River dumping
  3. Plastics and polythene bags
  4. Population growth
  5. Agricultural wastes (pesticides and fertilizers)
  6. Poor water management

What are the Effects of Water Pollution?

Water pollution causes an adverse effect on the whole ecosystem, including the environment, humans, animals, and plants.

  1. The polluted water contains microorganisms and poisonous substances, which causes cholera, typhoid fever, diarrhea, vomiting, skin problems, etc.
  2. The toxic compounds/pollutants absorb the oxygen present in the water, thus significantly reducing the amount of oxygen available to mammals and other fish, resulting in their death in their natural environment.
  3. Pesticides, manure, and animal dungs pollute the water and degrade its quality, making it harmful for agricultural processes and ecosystems near the water bodies.

How to Prevent Water Pollution?

  1. Avoid unnecessary usage of water.
  2. Minimize the use of pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers.
  3. Reduce single-use plastic consumption and reuse or recycle plastic to a great extent.
  4. Proper disposal of chemical waste such as ammonia, bleach, paint, paint thinner, and many other chemicals.
  5. Installation of rainwater harvesting pit in houses and buildings.
  6. Volunteering and helping the water conservation organizations in cleaning beaches, rivers, and localities.
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