Water Scarcity

Water scarcity is described as a lack of sufficient clean and fresh water or access to safe water to fulfill human and environmental needs.

The scarcity of water can be classified into two types.

Physical water scarcity

It refers to a situation where the natural water doesn't meet the demand of a particular region.

Economic water scarcity

It is the result of poor water management resources by the people of that region.

World Water Day is celebrated on 22nd March to spread awareness and educate the importance of water worldwide.

What are the Causes of Water Scarcity?

The four major causes for water scarcity are:

Overuse of Water

The overuse of water for unnecessary activities and improper water resource management.


The degradation of water quality due to pollution makes the water unfit for consumption or use.

Growing freshwater demand

Due to the rapid population growth, the use of water to drink, cook and meet other needs has also increased. Due to this, the consumption of water is increased at the global level.

Global Warming

Global warming has resulted in the melting of glaciers and ice packs, which affects freshwater supplies. Due to this, there is a rise in droughts, floods, and heatwaves, worsening the water crisis in regions already under water stress.

What are the Effects of Water Scarcity?

  1. Increase in hunger and poverty in the water-stressed regions.
  2. Lack of water can cause dengue, malaria, trachoma (an eye infection that can cause blindness), plague, and typhus.
  3. Water scarcity has a negative impact on rivers, lakes, and other freshwater resources, leading to the loss of biodiversity.
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